The Eight Forms of Forced Labour

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In its 1930 Forced Labour Convention, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) described forced or compulsory labour as “all work or service which is exacted from any person under the menace of any penalty and for which the said person has not offered himself voluntarily” (Article 2(1)). Penalty here should not necessarily be taken to mean legal sanctions since it might also refer to the loss of certain rights or privileges.

As this kind of exploitation is known to takes on many different forms, the ILO has intentionally coined a rather broad definition in order to extend protection to as many potential victims as possible. Here are some of the main types of forced labour identified by the organisation:

8 Forms of Forced Labour